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Installing Junos on VirtualBox

1. Installing Junos on VirtualBox

Welcome back. In this video we will understand how to install Junos on VirtualBox. Once we set up Junos on VirtualBox, we should be able to perform all the labs shown in this course. The best part is that all of this is actually free. Box is a free tool that can be installed for virtualization. And I'll also be sharing the Juno image that we're going to use to install on VirtualBox. Let's start. First up, what do we need? Well, we need a couple of items. Number one, we need to have VirtualBox downloaded and installed. And you can get this from virtualbox.org wiki downloads. You should be fine with the latest version of VirtualBox. Next, we need the Juno OVA file. I have uploaded the Junos oba file to a couple of file sharing platforms. Right now you see both the URLs on the screen right now.You don't have to type this URL in your browser. I will be leaving these links in the description of this video. Both these links will give you access to the same file. Just in case the link is not working, please let me know in the discussion area and I will upload it again. Right, let's understand the network topology. So this is how I'm connected right now. You have a cloud on the top. That is my Internet service provider. My Internet service provider terminates my connection on my DSL router. The DSL router's outside interface gets a public IP from the Internet service provider. The inside interface has been configured with 192, 168, and 2224. And I have connected my laptop to that interface. And you can see that the connection is shown with a dashed line or a dotted line. Now that is because I'm on a WiFi connection, right? So my laptop will be using 192, 168, and 2244 as the default gateway for outbound connections towards the Internet. All good, let's dive into it. Alright, so this is the computer that I'm going to be using for performing this lab. This is a Windows computer on which I have an RDP session right now. The reason I'm doing that is because I'm right now recording from a Macintosh computer. And I want to install this and show this installation to you from a Windows device. So I have a remote desktop into this Windows computer for my Mac. The laptop that we saw in that diagram is this Windows computer. right? Let me make it full screen first. All right. Now I'm going to first open upVirtualBox before we start installing Juno's vSRX. We first want to make sure that we have the host adapters perfectly set up. So what we do is we go to File and we go to Host Network Manager. At this point, I have a couple of host-only adapters. When you start installing Junos, make sure that you have at least a couple of host-only adapters. These host-only adapters will be used to provide the inside interfaces of the Junos device. It's actually simple. You just have to click on Createand the adapter is automatically created. Right now I have a couple of them and I'm good to start. I'm going to close this and we're going to go to File and we'll click on Import Appliance. Alright, I'm going to point my Explorer to the right file downloads and this is the file and this is the exact same file that you'll be able to get from the link that is in the discussions area. I'm going to click on "Open" and then click on "Next." At this point, the settings are ready. However, we're going to make some changes for this one. We do not need a DVD interface, and we do not need the sound card as well.I'm going to leave the rest of them the way it is.And I'm also going to check this box over here that says "reinitialize the Mac address of all network cards and click on Import." All right, it's imported. Before we power it on, we want to make some changes. So I'm going to highlight that and click on Settings. All right, first of all I'm going to get into the system and I'm going to remove floppy and optical from the boot order. Also make sure that you enable this setting over here. Enable Ioapic. And also make sure that you enable this setting over here. Hardware clocks in UTC time. Next we'll go to Processor and we'll also enable this feature over here, which is Enable, which is enablepae NX. Next, we'll head over to Network, and you'll want to make sure that you enable the first network adapter. This adapter will be used to provide internet access to the Junos device. So I'm going to bridge that adapter with my WiFi port. Like I said earlier, the laptop is using a WiFi connection to reach the Internet. So I'm going to use the option called Bridge Adapter and I'm going to bridge that with my WiFi port. Okay, I'm not changing anything in the advanced settings. Everything is the way it is. I'm going to go to adapter two and I'm also going to enable this adapter. But this one will be a host-only adapter. I'm going to select one of the virtual host only Ethernet adapters and I'm going to disable the other. Just make sure that you have the cable connected at this point. If you need additional interfaces for Dunos,you could enable that from here. For adapters three and four, just make sure that you have enough hostonly networks configured. Right now, to keep things simple, I'm just going to have adapter One, which is a bridge adapter,and adapter Two, which is a host-only adapter. Also, we need a connection to the Junos device. For that, we'll go to serial ports and just make sure that you have enabled serial port turned on. I'm not going to change anything. I'm leaving everything at its default settings. Click on OK. And now we are ready to power on the Junos device. Let's click on "start." All right, so the device is powering on. All right, so the device has powered on and it says login. So right now, the default username would be roothit. Enter and you're logged in right away. Since it's a brand new device,there is no password on it. When you log in as root, you will be taken directly into the shell mode, which can be seen with the percentage sign. First up, I'm going to say CLI, which will take me into the operational mode. Okay, I'm going to hit enter to enter configuration mode. The first thing that you want to do is set the password for the root account because, without that, we cannot commit any changes. So I'm going to do set systemroot authentication, plain text password, hit enter, and I'm going to enter my password. Alright, so that's done. Next we need to set the interfaces, but before that, I'm going to commit this. Come out into operational mode and let's do show interfaces. Hit Enter. Now here, things are a little different in all the lectures of this course. You will notice that the interface names are GE, which is gigabit ethernet, or Fe, which is fast ethernet. But here we won't have that here. The interface that we are looking at is this one over here, em zero and em one. This is the first interface that we enabled bridge mode on. And this is the second interface that we enabled for the host-only network. If you had enabled adapter three and adapter four, you would have em two and em three. all right? That's the only difference. Otherwise, things are absolutely the same. Right, let's go and configure these. So I'm going to enter configuration mode again Let's do edit and I'm going to do edit edit interfaces. Let's do unitzero and I'm going to give it an address. So set your family address and I'm going to give it the addresses 100 and 921-682-1124. Just make sure this address or whatever address you are signing is not used by any other device in your network. Right. Hit address. So sI'm going to go to the top and I'm going to make a commitment. At this point, my host operating system should be able to communicate with my guest operating system. So I'm going to open up a command prompt from here and I'm going to try and ping192, 168, one, oops, not one, one, one. That has to be two to one. Perfect. So you can see that the host operating system is able to communicate with the guest operating system. right? Let's come back over here and let's do the show route. Let's come back out and let's do the show route. So we have the directly connected route for that interface and we also have the local route for that interface itself. However, at this point, we do not have a route to get to the Internet. So let's do that first. Let's go back to editing. Let's do edit routing options, static. And I'm going to do the Set route for default. We want to be doing zero. And I'm going to say next up, the next IP address will be my DSL router, which in this case is 192, 168, two, two. Hit Enter. I'll go to the top and I'll commit my changes. Okay, come back to operational mode. And I'm going to first, and I'm going to firstping my DSL router, which is 192-1682 dot the next But before I ping the router,there's a funny thing here. Since this is a remote connection initiated from a Macintosh computer, I have no way to terminate the ping. To terminate the ping, I need to press the right control and, along with that, C. So that's right, control plus C. However, on Macintosh devices, you don't have a write control. So that means I would not be able to terminate the ping if I entered that command right now. So what I'm going to do is count to four, which means the ping will automatically terminate after four packets are sent. When you try this on your personal laptop,you may not have to do this. Let me enter means I would So I am able to ping my DSL router. Next, I'm going to ping the Internet. So ping four, two, count four before that. I'm just going to minimise this one over here, okay? And let me do an entry. Perfect. So we can now ping the Internet. And now this Junos device is ready to be configured just like a normal physical SRX device. I do want to add a disclaimer over here. I'm going to highly recommend that you try this lab only from your personal computer, not from an office laptop. Not because it's not going to work, but because on your office laptop you may have some kind of endpointprotection turned on, some kind of firewall turned on, which may not allow you to establish this communication. In fact, I tried it from my office laptop, but it just would not work. The bridge connection would not get established. Right. So I'm going to highly recommend that you try this only on your personal computer or your personal laptop. We can also enable SSH and Telnet on these two north device.For example, right now you see that the console is not very great; it's not very flexible. This console over here, However, if we used a SSH or telnet client to get into this device, it would be much more flexible. So what you can do at this point is get back over here. You can turn on Set systemservices, SSH, and the same command. We could also do Set System Services telnet,commit the configuration, and then we can actually log in to this Juneau device. The best part is, even if you turn off this device, it is going to be absolutely fine. The configuration is going to be saved. And the next time you log in,you're going to continue where you left off. Isn't that super easy and handy? We can actually perform all the labs free of charge. And it's so flexible. Now, I'm going to encourage all of you to set this up on your personal computers. If you run into any issues, please let me know in the discussion area. That's it for this video. I'd like to thank you for watching, and I will catch you in the next lecture. Thank you.

User Interfaces

1. CLI Functionality

Hello and welcome back. In the last section, we looked at the Junos architecture. We understood the differences between the control plane and the forwarding plane, and we also talked about traffic processing. We understood the differences between transit traffic and exception traffic. This is section three. In this section, we are going to understand the Juno's user interface. And in lecture one of section three, we're going to start by understanding the CLI functionality, or in other words, the command line interface functionality. If you're ready, let's begin. Let's start by talking about the ways to access the command line interface. And essentially, there are two ways to access the command line interface. The first one is known as outofband, and the second one is known as inbound. The first method, which is known as "out of band," uses the serial console port of the device to connect. Now, this port is dedicated for management purposes,and I'll show you the device that we're going to be using for the demonstration. The device that you see on the screen right now is exactly what we're going to connect with. I have a SRX 100, which we are going to use for the demonstration and the rest of the exercises in this course. Notice carefully that there's a port that has been marked as console. That is the out of band console port. Why do we call it "out of band"? because it is a port that is dedicated for management purposes. You cannot pass your production traffic through that port. The second method, which we call the in-band method, involves using the rest of the ports towards the righthand side. Those are the production ports. We may use those ports as well for managing the device. So we have two methods. Number one is known as outofband, using the console port. And number two is known as inband, using one of the production ports. If you're going to be using a programme like Hyperterminal or any terminal emulation program, it is going to ask you for certain settings. When you try to connect to a device, the settings that you need to use are what I've shown you on the screen. Bits per second should be set at 9600. The database should be eight no parity, one stop bit, and the flow control should be set as hardware when you're trying to connect to the device via a serial port. All right, now let's take a look at how to connect. First up, we're going to try the first method, known as autoband. And for that, I'm going to take you into my virtual machine. For some reason, I'm having trouble connecting outofband with my Mac computer, so I'm going to use an avirtual Windows machine to connect to the console port. Let's begin. All right, so I've logged into a virtual Windows device, and I'm going to be using a programme known as Terra Term. It's a really good program. You may try this on your Windows computers as well. It's a free programme that allows you to connect to your devices. I'm just going to open that up and you'll notice down over here there's a specific option that allows you to connect to the serial port. I'm going to use that and click on OK. And right now I've logged in. I can see the prompt when I hit the enter key on my keyboard. There you go. I'm just going to change the look and feel of the window. There you go. This looks much better. right? So what I've done right now is use a programme called Terra Term to connect to the console port of the device. And I can log in here as well. My username is root, and I'm going to enter my password, and that takes me into the device. So this is how you connect via the console port. We'll try the second method as well, which is to connect with the Telnet or SSH protocol. I'm going to open an ad-hoc programme on my Mac computer for that. I'm just going to close this. I've opened up an aterminal programme and let's try to SSH, SSH yamat 192, 168, dot one, dot one. And I'm going to enter my password. And there you go. I've logged in. So these are two different ways in which you can log in: from the console port, which is dedicated for management traffic, or using telnet or SSH. On one of the production port numbers,there are two types of users. On a June device, you have the root users and you have the non-root users. When you have a brand new Junos device, by default,there is a root account already configured on that device. So when you boot up a brand new Do Notes device, you can log in with the user name root without any password. But when you make any configuration changes for the first time, you also have to set a password for the root account. On the other hand, you can also create additional useraccounts, but these are going to be non-root accounts. Now there's a difference between when you log in as a root account and when you log in as a non-root account. If you log in as a root user, you're automatically going to be placed in the shell mode of the device. If you log in as a non-root account, you will be placed in operational mode. And I'll show you what I mean. Let's go back to the terminal. I'm going to maximise this. Okay, let me exit out and let's try to do it one more time. When I say SSH, I'm referring to root at 192-1681, dot one. So right now I'm logging in as a root account. It's asking me for my password. Alright, I've logged in. You can see at the bottom of the screen I have the console. Now I want you to notice something. Notice the prompt. actually ends with a percentage sign. That is an indication that I've logged into Shell Mode. I can navigate to the Operational Mode by invoking the command CLI, and that takes me to the Operational Mode, which has the greater thansign at the end of the prompt. Now let's try to log in as a non-root account. So I'm going to exit out of this exit one more time and I'm going to log in as a non-root account. All right, I've logged in. Notice the prompt now ends with a credit and a sign, which means when I log in as a non-root account, I get directly placed into the Operational Mode and from here I can invoke the Shell Mode as well, using the command StartShell, and that will take me into the Shell Mode. But there's a difference when you log in with a root account and a non-root account. Okay, very important. Please remember this. Next, let's talk about the CLI modes. There are three modes of the command-line interface. Number one is the Shell Mode, number two is the Operational Mode, and number three is the Configuration Mode. The Shell Mode can be identified with a percent sign at the end of the prompt,which is what we just saw right now. And the Shell mode is directly available when you log in as a root user. The Operational Mode is available when you log in as a non-root user. It has a greater than sign at the end of the command prompt. The Operational Mode is used for Operational Mode functionalities like taking a look at the configuration ping, phraseroute, rebooting the device and all that. Everything other than configuring the device can be done from the Operational Mode. We're going to spend a lot of time in operational mode, so we'll reserve the demonstration for that. Just come back over here. I'll show you a couple of commands that you can do from the Operational Mode. For example, I can ping 192.168.10.50, but the IP address is wrong. Yes, you can do ping from the operational mode. You can also SSH into the operational mode. You can SSH from the Operational Mode.Right, so these are some of the commands that are supported in the Operational Mode. The third mode is the Configuration Mode, which is used to configure the device. The Configuration Mode can be identified with the hash or the pound symbol at the end of the command prompt. So, from the Operational Mode, you can hit thecommand configure to move into the Configuration Mode. And, as you can see, the prompt now ends with a pound symbol, indicating that you are in Configuration Mode, correct? So remember, we have three modes: shellmode, operational mode, and configuration mode. The Configuration Mode is to perform the configurations. Operational Mode is for commands like viewing the configuration or troubleshooting commands. All of that is available in the operational mode. And the Shell mode is used mainly for accessing system level files and things like that. Typically, we will not be using the shell mode. OK, now let's talk about CLI navigation. I want to talk about three important types over here. Number one is the question mark. Number two is the spacebar completion. And number three is tab completion. Let's go back to the terminal. So, as you can see, I'm currently in configuration mode. And when I hit the question mark,it shows me all possible completions. It shows me all the commands that I can actually type in here. Let's try one of the commands. OK, we'll try with a set. And let's say I don't know what I can write after the Set command. I can hit a question mark one more time. It shows me all possible completions. Let's say I'm saying "set system and question mark." It now shows me all possible combinations at the set system level. So the question mark is a really handy tool,especially when you do not remember the commands. A question mark can be very useful. It is used to view all the possible completions. Next, you have the Spacebar Completion. The space bar can be used to complete any incomplete command. For example, I'm saying set up a system. And let's say I say root. I want to do this one, the root authentication. Instead of typing the entire command, I can just type a few letters and I can hit the spacebar, which is going to complete the command for me. It's really handy and a very quick way to do things. For example, let's say I'm just typing in the letter R and then I hit a spacebar. It would actually show me all possible combinations because it says R is ambiguous. We have three different commands that start with the letter R. So it says after there are three possible completions. You have to type in enough characters to uniquely identify the command. If I try RA.D and I hit the space bar, it stops at radius. And then there are two options: server and option. So it waits for you to give it a unique conclusion. So I'm going to say S and I hit the spacebar. And now it completes the command for me. Now, the third one that we talked about is Tab Completion. Now, Tab is also used to complete your incomplete commands. However, there's a difference between spacebar completion and tab completion. What's the difference? Let's take a look at it. I'm going to go back to my terminal. I'm going to erase this command. I'm going to say set security zones. security zone. And I know I've configured a security zone called "trust." Before I started this lecture, I did a little bit of configuration. Right now, you do not have to worry about remembering these commands, okay? We are going to discuss all these commands in detail in the lecture dedicated to that right now. I'm just trying to show you the difference between spacebar and tab completion. I already know there is a zone configured as Trust,so I'm going to type in Tr and when I hit the space bar, notice that it does not complete. That's for me. Even though I have a zone called "Trust." Now I'm going to go back and I'm going to hit the tab key, and you have to believe me that I'm hitting the tab key. I know you cannot see it, but you have to believe me. OK, I'm going to hit the tab key now and notice it completes that for me. Did you notice the difference? The spacebar does not complete it, but the tab completes it. Why do we see this difference? because the spacebar can only complete system-defined commands. User-defined variables can only be completed using the tab key. The word "trust" is the name of the ofa zone that I have configured. It's a user-defined variable. So for that, I need to use the tab key. The spacebar would not complete it. So I hope you get the difference. Spacebar completes all the commands except for user-defined variables. The tab completes everything, including the userdefined variables. Now personally, I never use the spacebar. I always use the tab key because it is just so comfortable the way it is placed on the keyboard, your hand automatically reaches out to the tab key. Alright, now let's talk about some keyboard shortcuts. These can be very handy, especially when you're writing long configuration commands. It can really help you move back and forth on the command line. The first one is control plus a It allows you to move to the beginning of the command. The next one is CTRL plus E, which allows you to move to the end of the command. Let's take a look at it. Let's go back to the terminal. Now I'm going to do control plus acontrol plus A and you'll notice the prompt actually moved to the beginning of the command. I'm going to do Control plus E and you'll notice the prompt moves to the end of the command. So this is really interesting. Control plus A is at the beginning of the command. Control plus E is at the end of the command. There are two more. Control plus W erases the word on the left, while CTRL plus U erases the entire line. Let's try that. I'm going to try CTRL plus W and you'll notice it takes off the word on the left. Let's try it one more time. It again takes off the word on the left. So Control plus W is to remove the entire word on the left. Let's try Control plus U, which takes up the entire line. So these are some interesting shortcut sequences that you may want to remember. It can help you play around and quickly configure on the command line. If you're already from a Unix background, you probably already know these shortcut sequences. All right, now let's talk about some health commands. There are three important health commands, and all of them are really useful. They are very helpful, in my opinion. The health commands are one of those things that significantly differentiate Junos from other vendors. These commands are so useful, especially when you're starting out with a Juno device and you don't remember the commands very well. The Help commands can really be a savior,and let's take a look at them. Let's go back to the terminal. I'm going to exit out of the configuration mode. So right now I'm in operational mode, and I may just want to resize the terminal window. This looks better. Okay, let's try the Help command, and I'm going to hit a question mark. There are different items, but we are going to focus on apropos, reference, and topic. Let's try Health Topic, and I'm going to hit a question mark to see what comes up. It gives you all possible completions, which means if you're not aware of any specific completion or any specific topic, you can type in that. So I'm going to say help. Hostname of the topic system I want to understand what this command can do for me. So I'm going to say help. Enter the topic host name. So it says this is useful in configuring the host name of the router or switch. And it also tells you the hierarchy at which you need to be typing in the command. The hierarchy and the actual command that you should be typing in It gives you some more information, like it should be less than 256 characters. And then it also shows you some related topics, right? So Health Topic is a useful command when you want to know about a specific topic. Let's try the next one, which is Help Reference. I'm going to say "Help Reference," and let's get a question mark first. It has the same possible completions, right? Let's give it a try. So I'm going to say help. Reference system host name entry. And this time I have some more information. First of all, it gives me the syntax. It tells me what hierarchy I should be configuring that command under. It gives you some release information, and this is interesting. It tells you when the command was first released. It gives you some descriptions, some options,the required privilege level, and so on. So the Help Reference command provides us with more information than the Help Topic command. Let's try the last one, which is Help apprepo. I'm going to say "Help apropos." Let's try a question mark first. And it says you have to give the subject name. So let's call it "hostname enter." So it gives you all possible commands which can give you more information about the hostname. So these are the three different helpcommands that you may want to memorize. Help Topic is useful when you want to know about a specific topic. It gives you brief information. Help Reference gives you some more information compared to what Health Topic gives you. And Help Afropo gives you all possible commands that can give you more information on that topic. Okay, so we've discussed the help commands and that's all the topics that I wanted to cover with you in this lecture. Some important tips Remember the differences between a root user and an anonymous root user and what the difference is when you log in as your root user and an anonymous root user. Remember the CLI modes. You have the shell mode, you have the operational mode, and then you have the configuration mode. We also discussed a few keyboard shortcut sequences, and we discussed the three different health commands. What next? We're going to start by understanding the different levels of output on a Juno device. It's a really interesting topic. We will then understand how we can filter the output on a Junos device. And this is another area where Juno's score is significantly higher compared to other vendors. And then we'll talk about a very important concept known as active versus candidate configuration. I hope you found this lecture interesting. This is the first lecture in which we actually got onto a journey device. That's all for this lecture. Please let me know if you have any questions. If not, I'd like to thank you for watching and I'll catch you in the next lecture. Thank you.

2. Output levels and configuration

Alright, welcome back. In the last lecture, we looked at the Junos CLI functionality. We started off by understanding the Juno command line interface. We understood the different navigation commands inside the command line interface. We looked at some of the help commands. We also saw the different ways to access the command line interface and so on. In this lecture, we are going to continue where we left off. We'll first start off by talking about Juno's output, and then we'll discuss some items related to Juno's configuration. If you're ready, let's begin. First up, let's start by talking about the different output levels that you have in Junos. We have four different levels for outputs,which basically means when you're looking at the output on a Juneau device, what are the different levels of those outputs? You have four ways. The first is succinct, while the second is succinct. The third one is detailed, and the fourth one is extensive. Let's dive straight into the command line interface and take a look at this. All right, so I've opened up a command-line interface. Let me go and login. So I'm going to say SSH shyam at 192, 168, dotone, dot one, and I'm going to put my password. Alright, I've logged in. So first of all, I'm going to run some commands that have some output that I can show you. And I think the command that I can show you is "show interfaces GE or Fe." I'm going to put a star so that I can see all the interfaces, and I'm going to hit enter so I get some output. Right now, what I'm going to do is I'm going to add a switch over here. So I'm going to say show interfaces, Ferand. I'm going to put in terse. The first one, right, let's try that. So you see, you get minimal output. It only gives you very little information about every element inside that output. Let's try the next one, which is brief. So I'm going to hit the up arrow and I'm going to say show interfaces fee zero star brief. Now it gives me a little more information about every element in that output. So it says physical interface fee, it has some information, the next interface, some information, and so on. So we get some more information compared to totes for every element in the output. I'm going to say control C and come out. Let's try the next one, which is in detail. Hit the up arrow, remove the word brief, and I'm going to put it in detail. Now, if you notice, we have way more information. So it says "physical interface fee" is zero. It has all kinds of information like flow control,class of service queues, the current address, some traffic statistics, the alarms, some more statistics for the logical interface and so on. So it actually gives you way more information compared to the brief command. It goes all the way down until here. So that's a lot of information per element. This could go on for many pages. Right, let's exit out of this and we'll try the last one, which is extensive. So I'm going to hit the up arrow. So I'm going to say show interface, extensive, and let's try this. And now we have even more information. So it starts over here. The first element is over here, free. It gives you some information that we saw in the Detail command, and it has some statistics that we also saw over there. And it has way more information than the Detailcommand, and this could just go on and on. So I'm just going to hit the spacebar to go to the next page. I'm going to do it again. So you see that we have almost three pages of information for every element, and that's what is extensive. It gives you all the possible information. Normally, when configuring a device, we would not look at it in great detail. We may or may not even look at the details command. It's more useful when we are actually troubleshooting. And we are looking for statistics. That's when we are going to use extensive or probably even detailed Most of the time, we will be working with terror and brief. So we have four output levels. Number one is Terse. It displays the least amount of information and the output is displayed as a list. We then have Brief, which displays additional information about each element. We then have Details, which displays most of the information about each element. And then we have Extensive, which displays all information about every element. Now let's understand how we can filter the output. So we looked at the output right now and we saw so much information. What we're going to understand is how I can quickly filter my output. Let's go back to the command line interface. All right, so I'm back over here. I'm going to say Control C so that we can exit out, and I'm going to go into configuration mode using the edit command. Or you can also do it with the configure command. Okay, And I'm going to look at the output of a specific command. So I'm going to say showinterfaces GE orFee or let's just say showinterfaces Fee zero. We have some information. Actually, I feel this is less information. So let's do show security. Alright, that's a lot of stuff. So now let's try to apply some filters to this. So I'm going to say show security and then I'm going to enter the Pipe character. So I'm going to say pipe. And first let's try with a question mark to see what the options are that we have. So we have all possible options,or we have these possible options. The first one is known as Compare. Let's first start with the Count command, and then we'll come back to the Compare command. So I'm going to say Count and it says there are 82 lines in the output. Let's actually do this. Let's go back one level to the operationalmode and I'm going to say "Show security." First of all, we'll do the terse command. That is not a valid command. So I'm just going to go back and I'm going to say "show interfaces terse." Okay, so we already know this command, right? It gives you little information about every element. Let's do that. So you have some information over here. Now let's try the count feature over here. So I'm going to use the pipe and I'm going to say count. So it says there are 437 lines. Now let's do this show interface. Let's do extensive, okay? And then I'm going to issue the count command. And now it says there are 1927 lines in the output. So you see how the count command can be so useful, especially when we want to know quickly. What is the length of the output? We would go for the count command. Let's try the next one, which is compare. So I'm going to get back into the configuration mode and I'm going to say show interfaces Fe 10. That's the output. So I'm going to hit the up arrow, use the pipe, and I'm going to say Compare. Now we can actually compare the output of this command, which shows interface Fe 10, with the configuration that we may have saved earlier. So you look at this one. There's a file called as.Config One, which was saved on September 26, 2016. There's another file called "current config" which was also saved on September 26. So let's actually compare the output of this command with the configuration that's in this file. So I'm going to say compare with config one enterand it says that right now you added this command which is address 192, 168, one forward slash, and this command has been removed from that file. So this command has been removed and this command has been added, and you see how cool this feature is. It enables you to quickly compare and determine what has changed from the past, correct? So that's a really useful command called "Compare." Let's try the next one. I'm going to hit the up arrow, and let's do a question mark. Let's try this one, display. Now, normally what happens is when I just hit this command, you notice how it displays to me. It looks to me as if it's a programming language. It does not show me the exact command that will be used to configure this value or this configuration. If I wanted to see the exact command, what I would do is hit the up arrow to fill the command, use the pipe, and I would say display question mark. And we have many options over here. We are not going to worry about everything. We're only going to worry about this item called "Set." So I'm going to say showinterfaces, fee zero Display Set.And you notice it actually shows me the command that was used to configure this value. Let's try something else. Let's do show security. That gives me a lot of information, like a programming language. And what if I wanted to know the commands that were used? So I would come back to this command, usethepipe, and I would say Display Set. Now it shows me all the commands that we used to configure. Isn't this really cool? It shows you the information in two different formats. Let's try the next command. So I'm going to hit the up arrow,remove the word display, hit the question mark, and we have something that says Accept. Let's try that. I'm going to say accept. Notice what it says. It says to show only text that does not match a pattern. Let's say I don't want to see anything that has the word "screen" in it. So I'm going to say Accept screen, and you'll notice all the lines that contain the Word screen are actually taken off. It's the rest of the configuration without the Word screen. And then we can further apply the Display command. So I'm going to hit the up arrow and I'm going to use the pipe and say Display, Display Set. And now notice we have all those commands that we typed in, except the ones that contain the Word screen in that.So again, this is a really cool command. Right now, let's look at some more items. I'm going to hit the up arrow. I'm going to come all the way down and remove the word "Accept." Hit the question mark. Let's try something called "find." So Find will search for the first occurrence of a pattern. First of all, we just look at the plane output, which is going to say Display Set. Now let's say I want to find the first occurrence of the word "policies," OK? So we'll hit the apparel and we'll say "Find policies" and you'll notice what just happened. It is now showing you the output from the first occurrence of the word policies. Anything that was there before the first occurrence of policies has been stripped off. It only shows the output from this line. So again, this is really interesting. Right now, since we are just starting out with Junie, we might not know what the usecases for these commands are, but I promise you, as you keep configuring Junos, as you keep playing with Junie, you'll realise how important these filters are. It can save you a lot of time. Right now, let's look at one more command. I'm going to hit the up arrow, and we'll try a question mark. So let's look at this one, the last command. Now for that, I'm going to remove all of this and first show you the plan output. When I hit Enter, I notice there are multiple pages of output. So I'm going to hit space to finish that. Now the last command or the last switch will only show you the last portion of the output. So I'm going to say show security pipe last,and notice it only shows me the end of the output or the last page of that output. This is especially useful if your output goes into pages and you only want to see the last portion of that output. So you don't have to scroll down all the way. You can just use the last switch, and it will automatically show you the last section of that output. Now let's try the next one. We'll hit a question mark and it'll say "Match." Now Match will only show you output that matches that pattern. So let's do show security, displayset pipe, and let's do match. Let's say I want to see output that matches the word "zones." Excuse me, zones. And now it only shows meoutput that matches the word "zones". Let's try the word "policies" again. We tried before to match policies. And notice it only shows meoutput that matches that word. So there is a difference between the find command and the match command. The find command shows me output that begins with the first occurrence of that word, while the matchcommand only shows me output that matches that word. Let's try some more. So I'm going to remove the word match and let's hit the question mark. No more is interesting. So let's go down over here. Let's go back over here and first take a look at the output. Now notice it says more, which means the output has been paginated and you have to hit the space bar to look at the full output. Now let's say I don't want to paginate the output, I want all the output in one shot. So I would say "Show security type no more." Let's try that. And you notice it shows you the entire output without waiting for the space bar to be used. So that's what no more can do for you. It can remove the pagination from the output. Let's try the next one. So I'm going to hit the up arrow, remove the word no more, and hit a question mark. Now, the last one that I'm going to show you right now is save. You can actually save the output of your command into a file. So first up, I'm going to say Show security,display, set pipe, and I'm going to say save. We have to give a file name, so I'm going to call it out dot TXT. Hit Enter. It says row 24 lines of output to TXT. Now, how do we see the output? How do we see what's in that file? So we're going to exit out of configuration mode, and there's a command called "file spacebar in question mark." I'm going to use this one, file show question mark. And there is the file out of TXT. So let's try that out on TXT, and there you go, the output of that command. So it's a really nice way to save your entire configuration to a file, which you should probably archive or backup in a secure location. We've looked at the usage of the Pipe option. We saw the different options or different commands using the Pipe command or using the Pipe option. Next, let's talk about active versus candidate configuration. And this is very important. First of all, we understand what we mean by Active Configuration. The configuration that is currently active on the device,or in other words, the configuration that is running on that device, is known as the Active Configuration. Now, some vendors call it the "running configuration." That is exactly what is called the active configuration. When you reboot a device, the active configuration is the one that is loaded onto the device. When you enter the configuration mode, it creates a copy of the Active Configuration, which is known as the Candidate Configuration, which means when we are making some modifications, we are not actually changing anything in the Active Configuration. We are working on a copy of the Active Configuration called the Candid Configuration. And when you commit your changes, the Candidate Configuration now becomes the Active Configuration. Let's go back to the terminal for a second. So right now I am in the operational mode and when I hit the configure command I'm going to get into the configuration mode. Juno is going to create a copy of the ActiveConfiguration and any changes that I make right now using any of the set commands, all those changes are going to be applied to the Candidate Configuration. And when I hit the commit command, the Candidateconfiguration will be saved as the active configuration. Alright, now let's talk about the configuration modes. Two nodes offer three different configuration modes. It is known as Shared Configuration,Exclusive Configuration, and Private Configuration. Let's talk about the first one, Shared Configuration. So, when you use the Configure or Edit commands to enter the configuration mode, you are in the Shared Configuration mode. If the configuration is being edited by another user, a warning message will be displayed on the console when you enter the configuration mode. When the configuration is committed in Shared Mode, the changes made by all the users are committed. So if we go back over here and when I go to the operational mode and when I come back to the configuration mode using the configure command or using the edit command, any of these commands will take me into the Shared Configuration mode. Multiple users can be in the SharedConfiguration mode at the same time. Next you have the exclusive configuration mode. When you enter the configuration mode using the command Configure Exclusive, you are in the Exclusive Configuration mode. Exclusive means only one, right? So, only one user is allowed to enter the Exclusive Configuration mode. So I'm back at the CLI. I'm going to exit out.And when I hit configure, let's try the question mark. You'll notice there's something called Exclusive, and that is what is going to take you into the Exclusive configuration mode. Let's try that exclusive. Now hit enter. It gives you a warning saying uncommitted changes will be discarded on exit. So right now I'm in exclusive configuration mode. Next, you have the Private configuration mode. When you enter the configuration mode using the command Configure Private, you are in the Private Configuration mode. Multiple users can enter the private configuration mode at the same time. But when you commit your commands, it's only the changes made by you that will be committed. The changes made by other users will not be committed. So if you were in a shared configuration mode, it would commit everybody's commands. When you're in the Private Configuration mode,it will only commit your commands. And let's take a look at that. Let's get out of this. We'll do this in private. That is what will take you to the Private Configuration mode. All right, so that's about configuration mode. Now, I had actually planned a lot more for this lecture,but I feel that this is just enough for this lecture. I had planned some other topics, like the configuration commands in Junos. We'll save that for the next lecture. Okay, so we'll do part two of this lecture. All right, so let's look at some important tips. Important tips You know, the different configuration modes, the ones that we just discussed right now. And also know the difference between an Active and a Candidate configuration. Also, if possible, practise the various output filters that we learned today. I understand some of you may not have access to a Juno device. Before we begin the next section, I'm going to show you guys how you can set up a virtual SRX device so you can practise the configuration in the next lecture. We'll continue where we left off today. So whatever topics we could not cover in this lecture, we'll do it in the next one. And that includes CLI, navigation commands, configurationhierarchy, and some of the configuration commands. That is all for this lecture, guys. Let me know if you have any questions. If not, I'd like to thank you for watching and I'll catch you in the next lecture. Thank you.

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