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Cisco 350-601 Practice Test Questions, Cisco 350-601 Exam Dumps

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Introduction

32. RSTP TCN

TCN STP and RSTP both have different ways of TCN is nothing but top policy change notification. Now what is happening in STP, say in the case of when they switch to forwarding a state or in the state of when they are going to or downstate, at that time they are generating the TCN. Particularly in STP, where two dotTCN bits will go to the root bridge. Because you know that root bridge has to take a decision. Now what the root bridge is doing now is that now if they are sending the Bpdu, they are setting the TCbit, that's the topology change bit, and then they are forwarding this to all the downstream switches. So all the downstream switches will come to know that the port is going to the forward in the state. The switch interface is going to the forward in the state or blocking or down the state. Correct. Again, this is a slightly more time-consuming process than Rhtp. What is happening? For starters, they only knew about edge ports when they were attempting to advance a state. So we know that these edge ports are working as a portfolio or they are equivalent to a portfolio directly. They are going to the forwarding estate. So only non-edge ports when they are transitioning to a forwarding state where the TCN is generated. The good thing about RSTP is that all the switches can generate the BPD and send the BPD. So in this case, what has happened is that they are not waiting for the root to bridge to understand or recognise that particular change or that particular change notification and then it will send it to all the downstream switches rather than the switch. Whenever he gets that change notification, he will update the other switch. So that's the reason this process is faster. So here you can see that anyswitch can generate the Tcbpdu, allowing the topology to quickly converge via the handsets. Now a switch receiving a Bpd will flush all Macaddresses learned on a designated port except the port where they are receiving the TC or the only change we made. So again, the core thing behind the scenes is that all the switches in RH TP can generate and send the Bpd, they can sink in the RHCP database or they can sync the Rhetor status. Rather than that, they will wait for some max edge timer to expire or some edge timer to expire. Or rather than that, they are waiting for some central authority, say, for example, the root bridge, to send the updates to send the updated Bpd to all the downstream streams which are in the STP. All right, so here again you can see that we have some flavour of RHP and in the next section we are going to do the lab related to that. We'll learn more about that. Now here you can see that not only is the RSVP's convergence faster, but they are taking care of two failures. So either it's a direct or indirect failure. We know that the optimization of STP is possible. If you read that stage, you'll find that you have certain mechanisms that you can optimise the STP. Like uplink fast backbone, fastportfolio is also one of the optimization techniques. So the portfolio is already taken care of inside the edge port. The nature of the edge port is working as a portfolio. Then for direct and indirect failures, this is also taken care of inside RSTP. So we don't need to optimise because these features are already included. So, in case of any direct or indirect failure, the alternate ports or the backup ports, will not wait; rather, they will move to the forwarding estate. Okay, now we have two implementations of RSTP. The first is Cisco's proprietary rapid per VLAN RSTP. So, because we are going to run the RSTP on an aCisco switch, we will go ahead and use this spanning 300mode rapid Pbstree, and the other one is the multiple spanningtree that we will study in the upcoming sections. So we have our laps set up. Let me quickly show you this lapse setup and what we are going to do here. For example, this is the topology diagram that we have. What I can do is say, for example, I have switch one and switch two and switch three. So here I'm going to run the RSTP inbetween switches one, two, and three like this. At the moment, I will not use all the interfaces and all the switches, but this will solve our purpose if we run the RSTP in between that and then we'll go and run a few of the verification commands. So let's stop here. And in the upcoming section we have a lab related to Rapid PBS or Rapid FTP.

33. RSTP Lab

Now we have the lapse section, so what are we going to do here? I'm going to run the RSTP in between switch number one. So two and three are actually 10110 two and 1003. So you can see in the diagram that we have the thatis connected like this, so here we'll run the STP and then we are going to verify that here are the interfaces e zerozero from switch one to two and then one. So let me quickly go and create the VLAN, for example, VLAN ten, because we know that all VLANs have their own STP instance, so I can go to this script and then select all, I can go to confi and Vlantin, and then we can exit. Alright, so send this script to all the switches. You can see this summary of all these instances here. You can see that blocking listening. Landing forward, et cetera Now we know that by default we're running STP, so that's why you're getting this result. We haven't enabled rapid PBST. We have to change the mode. We'll do that. Then you have the detailed command indetail command. You'll come to know most of the things like topology change notifications As you can see, we're dealing with switch number one. Two and three So let me try a few more commands, and then we have to say interface. This is also a very important command, so for example, interface zero and enter. So now with this command, I can see that this particular interface is in a forwarding state. The rule is designated, and like that, I can go and check. So basically, let's say I have three switches. I'm going back to the show spanning tree detail and here we'll see who is the villain and I'm not consideringVLAN zero. So let's leave this VLAN zero everywhere. We are seeing this villain at zero. So let me quickly go and check that. Do I have VLAN ten everywhere? So I can see I have VLAN there and then I should have VLAN here. So I have all the VLAN, although I haven't added any interfaces inside the Vlant. I will do that. I'll move some interfaces inside Villantin. So let's do that CDP neighbor. Let's check who is connected to switch number two and switch number three. So here you can see 0223 and this also makes a switch for taxes, VLAN ten. Okay, I'll go to switch number two. And here also, we'll run socialDB neighbour config interface range e. Let's see, we have it like that it is connected. So from switch number three, and we'll check those labels for one and two. So these are the ports. So I can go here and do interface rangezero, which is still free switchport accessville and ten. All right, because we want to verify this only for VLAN ten. So you're spanning three VLAN ten and then detail. So now you can see this telling you about villain number ten. That's okay. And if I go inside villain ten, and check who the root is. So here you can see that the root portID is the priority in the Mac address. So let's verify that this Mac address belongs to which particular switch, correct? So now if you go ahead and check your Mac address, it's Aabbc. Now if you see this particular output, what is the priority? 32778. Why is this seven seven, eight? Because 32768is the default priority plus the villain ID. So that's why it is showing up like this. So everywhere you will find that the priority is 32778. So whoever has the lowest Mac address, that switch will become the correct root page. All right, so let's continue this. All right, so we can verify this because we have two interfaces connected, so you are seeing interface zero up to zero slash three. Although if you go to any of the ports you'll see the details, you can see clearly. For example, two, four, and ten are designated for forwarding; that is the DP whosecost is the port priority port identifier. You can see here they have a priority of 32768 plus ten. That's the villain's number, and this is the address. Now the designated bridge has priority. This is the Mac address. Then again, you can see the port priority and all that. The question here is that in this scenario, who is the root and then who is the nonroot, or maybe who is the root? And then what about the designated port, the root port, and blocking et cetera? because we are running the spanningtree protocol at the moment. So for that, you can go and check your spanning tree and then bridge it yourself. So we have two options here. One is the bridge option, that is, and then what about the route? So I can go and check the bridge address and then the root address. And here you can see that the bridge address for villain, we're focusing on villain, and the root address for villain, are both the same. So that means that this particular switch is the route. Now, since this is the route, I want to know what the port status is. So, if you go ahead and check, say, villain ten and say we have options for interfaces as well as interface wise, we can go ahead and check ezero and then I can check the state, detail, and interface wise. You can also use filters, for example, zero is the designated port. So if you go and refer to the topology diagram, you'll find that we have different ports from the switch that is going to switch one to two, and here you also have one. So this is DP. That means if you go and check here, this must be RP. Again, whatever, we have a study,we are following the same thing. So now if I go and copy this command, you can see this is root forwarding. That's correct. So DP and RP like that, we can go and analyze. Now what we want to know here is the root address and the bridge address. So we know what the root address will be. Now again, if you go and check the bridge address for this particular switch, what is the Mac address? Because priority is the same. Likewise, if you go and check the Mac address for this particular switch, you'll find it is 6700. So as for the lower mac address, switch one is the winner. Now if you go and check this particular interface, like the interface between switches two and three, here you will find this block. So, for example, spanning three VLAN ten in detail Now for VLAN ten, you'll find that few of the ports So this is the path to take. It's okay, you'll find blocking, you'll find blocking, and you will find ports here in Switchthree. A few of the ports are in blocking a stage. Okay, so this is related to all these commands related to STP. So what are the big commands we have or important commands? We have shown the spanning tree summary. It will give you the summary spanning tree and for that particular VLAN, you can check the details like this. Then you can check spanning create.So, for example, sometimes we used filters as well. So, for example, I can go and check include, and then we can filter certain things here. So for example, designated, then I can add here designated, and say, for example, if I have everything isdesignated forwarding, because this is the route. So here you can see all the ports. They are coming like this. We have options. We can filter. We can add multiple filters as well. You can see that you have only two portable items. Alright, but what do we have to do in this lab? We have to go and run the RSVP. So I'll go to the switch. We have to change the mode. So this is spanning tree mode, and if I type cushion mark here, you can see that you have MST, PBST, and rapid PBST modes. Now, if you are changing the mode for RapidPBST, you should do this to all the switches. correct? So we'll go ahead and press that command to all the switches. Then the switch will get converged. Once the switch gets converged, now we can go and check to see if there is a spanning tree. You have the same options here, correct? So here you can see that for MSD you have another option but to show a spanning tree and then we can go and check the details. You can see that VLANone I don't want to check VLAN one, but still VLAN one is executing RSTP compatible spanning pre protocol.You can check this better. I can go and run command showspanning preln ten and then detail. So we can check only the VLAN ten commands. Now we will see that the port rules will be changed. So, DP will be DP. There's no problem with that in switch number one. But if you go and check this inswitch numbers two and three as per therapid STP, the designation will get changed. So this is root. It's okay. Designated forwarding, designated forwarding. Here you can see this alternate block. So now you can see the designations are getting change.The role of the port is getting changed.As a result, VLAN ten spans three VLAN tens and details. Now here also, you can see this is the forwarding alternate blocking, intellect blocking. So this is the way that we can go and run the RFP and then we can verify that. All right, so we can verify this. Again, if you want to check more options, you can go to Show spanning Preview Land in case you want to check root and then other options. Here you can see that you have options related to priority port, hello, intervaldetails, cost, et cetera, et cetera. Then you can check some other stuff if you want. So you can see if I go to a spanning tree again if I want to check the bridge, then the protocol and if I press Enter. So here you can see it is running in inRSV, the same thing that we have in STP. There's no slight change in the configuration, but the verification options are the same for STP as for RSTP as well.

34. Nexus vPC

In one, two, the last topic, we have VPC. This is quite an important topic. What I have done is that after this particular session, you'll find four small sessions. So four small five-minute videos are there that I have recorded in a data centre in the lab environment. small videos and you will even hear some fan noise in the back. a brief video Just to understand how we can go and configure the VPC. And in that video, you'll find a small laptop already as well. great. So we are going to learn and understand the VPC terminologies. What are the steps we have to take to configure the VPC in this section? Now, Why? We need VPC. We know that if we have three switches and connect three switches, the spanning protocol will automatically enter the picture and attempt to block. It is estimated that 50% of ports will be blocked. So you don't want to block the ports unnecessarily because in that case you are not using bandwidth because 50% of ports will get blocked. Correct. So to overcome that particular issue, we can use VPC as a virtual port channel method. And what is happening is that when you use VPC in this diagram, we'll understand that we are clubbing two devices and they will work as one device. So, instead of forming a triangle or having multiple links in a network, they will find a straight line to the access switch. And you have a direct line to the service from the access switch, correct? So in this manner, what is happening is that you are utilising 100% of the bandwidth because you're not forming triangles in a network. What you're doing, you have a straight line. So if a straight line is there, there's no loop and that's the use case utility we have with the VPC. VPC is a nice way to provide the datacenter devices to make use of full bandwidth. All the interfaces inside the data center will eliminate the SDP block or it will create L, two port channels like LCP etc. And different types of platforms will go and support VPC. Now in this diagram also, you can see that we have a blocked port due to VPC, due to STP. Sorry. And then when you are using VPC, that means you are overcoming that problem. And now we have this straight line, correct. So, since you have this straight line, this diagram will look very simple. This diagram is something like this: So you have a straight line going from one place to another place, right? So let's focus on understanding more about the VPC technology terminology. Again, here is also the same thing. You'll find that while you are doing the migration, Whatever block port you have, and in a broader sense, if we have any number of servers in the number of links, you can obviously increase the efficiency of those by at least 50% because you are using all of the bandwidth. All the links and even the migration of this nonVPC to VPC are easy to do. great. So now we understand why we need VPC. We want to get full utilisation of bandwidth. Now when we are using new technology, they are coming up with new terminologies. So what are the new terminologies? Following this, we have one more small animation slide. So you'll understand more and more. But the key term here is that you have to define the VPC domain, you have to define the VPC peers, you have to define the member port, and here you can see that everything is marked. You can draw all these things in your notebook,in your copy, then you have the VPC, then you have the VPC peer link, correct? So you can see, this is the VPC in the lab. We'll go and define this VPC as a 200 here in our lab, and also that we have very small labs in the way that we have seven k. You have seven k and then you have five k. There you can go and define VPC, 200, etc. but again, you can go down in a hierarchy. So, from seven thousand, you can go to five thousand, and from five thousand, you can go to the fix or the service, where you can create the VPC. Again, the analogy is that you want to create straight lines; you don't want complexity in a network. So what's the protocol behind the scene? The protocol behind the scene is the CFSCisco Fabric Services protocol that will be used for state synchronisation and configuration validation. Because here you are doing some configuration related to VPC. Here you are doing some configuration related to VPC, who will be the primary, who has the highest priority according to the CFS protocol. It will go and synchronise the database. Let me show you the animated slide that we have. So let's try to understand how we can go and build the VPC domain or VPC configuration. So first of all, we have to go and define the domain. So domain ten, domain twenty, et cetera. Because different domains have different VPC elements, VPC member ports, VPC member channels, et cetera. Then you can go and define the peer keeper live. So these VPCs have to exchange their control messages. So for that we have the VPC peer keeper. Then we have to define the peer link. So here you have the PL link and in the diagram, the nice thing is that you can see the colours as well. So when I'm talking about the VPC domain, you can see the colour is light brown, and the green one is your keep alive. You may use the management interface or you may use one of the dedicated three interfaces that are correct for the keeperlife packages and messages. You can see this third number item is coming as a peer link, then you can go and create the port channel so you have the VPC. In our case, that will be 200, and then finally you can do the rest of the configuration that you'll find inside the lab section. Correct the lab section. All four videos when you watch. You'll find how we can do a step-by-step configuration and then how you can do the verification as well. Coming back to verification, what is happening? First of all, you have to go and enable the VPC feature so the VPC manager will start, then the VPC peerkeeper I will get kicked off, which means the control package message exchange will start, then peer link will comeup, then it will resolve who is the primary. Then it will go and check the consistency check, which means how many villains I am supporting. How many villains you have type one and type two are correct, so you should not have a major configuration difference. Inside both the POS, you should have a primary and secondary rule type of configuration change. That's okay, okay and then the EPA link will be up for the data. The Svi broughtup time is VPC plus ten seconds. The VPCtime is Svi is plus 30 seconds. Great. So once ourVPC is up and running You can go and use one very small but key command to show VPC. At first, you will receive a good amount of information, which you can then read. At the very least, you will receive a high level overview. So let's look at this. You can see that CFS communication with the pier is fine. Then we hear the keep alive. It is telling you that peer keep alive is alive. Then consistency check is successful. Then VPC rules. All important things. It is providing you with peer keeper live, peer information, and VPC role information. I can see all this important information now. What we are going to do in the upcoming section you have four videos related to the lab configuration and verification Those are older videos, and you might hear some noise as well. Because working inside DCI created those videos. So go and complete section one, dot two. And once you complete those four videos, then we start with section one, dot three.

35. Nexus vPC Part 01 Configuration.1

Let us start the lab section. What we are going to do is perform the VPC configuration. Here you can see that we have two switches, nexus sevenK one and two, and the downstream switch is nexus fiveK one. Now in between this nexus seven K switch So let me go to next seven k one first and inside seven k one we'll go and configure the VPC. First of all, we need to go and enable the feature called "Feature VPC." Before enabling that feature, we can't do any VPC relatedconfiguration. So once I enable the feature, then first of all, I will go and give the domain name so you can see that PPC domain I'm configuring 200 and then we can go and check the management interface because we want to configure the peer keeper live so here we have an interface called Mgmt zero I want to check that the interface mgmt zero So here you can see that my IP address is 1134, so I'll go and give the address as let'sgo inside the VPC domain and from here we can go and give the peer keep alive and the destination is 1031one three correct, so once you do this baseline configuration to Nexus seven k one, I will go to seven ktwo, and inside seven k two, we'll go and do the same configuration Once the VPC feature is enabled, we'll go ahead and copy and paste the peer keeper information, except this time the keeper information is that of the remote site. So first and foremost, I need to enable the feature called LSCP and stake the interface four one up to two. Obviously, they put bundles will start happening the same configuration. Let's do it inside Nexus to enable the featureLSCP So I went to port channel ten, making it a switch port and then a trunk port, because we have to specify that this interface is VPC peer links. We have to give the keyword VPC and then bea link, and the same information I have to go and provide under nexus seven K one and seven K two correct. Once we are done up to this point, then we can go and verify our VPC. So far, we have done basic configuration related to VPC. You can see that what's the peer status. You should see that this will come up. You can see the VPC. So, what can we do now that we have a place to stop?

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